For instance, at least 1000 human proteins (out of ~20,000) contain zinc-binding protein domains although there may be up to 3000 human zinc metalloproteins.. Abundance. In plants, the photosynthetic electron transport between the two photosystems has to cover distances of a few hundred nanometers. Between 2 and 5 nmoles plastocyanin per mg chlorophyll are extracted (see also Ref. View Answer. Definition of plastocyanin An electron transferprotein, containing a type 1 copper site, involved in plant and cyanobacterial photosynthesis, which transfers electrons to … PETE. Copper 7. View Answer. 1993 Dec; 4 (6):933–945. The plastocyanin content of etiolated bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was measured, and the development of the protein in response to light was followed. Molybdenum 5. It does not contain plastocyanin and is almost completely devoid of chlorophyll and carotenoids, but lipid and detergent are present. Plastocyanin. Die back of shoots is due to . The following points highlight the top ten essential elements of Micronutrients. Copper is activator of enzyme. Plastocyanin, a photosynthetic electron transfer catalyst, is the most abundant copper protein in these organisms. Plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 abundance is reciprocally dependent on Crr1: The best example of metabolic adaptation to copper-deficiency is found in cyanobacteria and eukaryotic green algae. The lateral distribution of plastocyanin in the thylakoid lumen of spinach and pea chloroplasts was studied by combining immunocytochemical localization and kinetic measurements of P700+ reduction at high time resolution. Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor. Zinc 6. Phaseolus vulgaris (Kidney bean) (French bean) Status. Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) Status. Each sheet contains parallel and antiparallel beta-strands. Photosystem I and plastocyanin can be cross-linked to an active electron transfer complex. Many inorganic elements, because they are required for catalysis or as structural components in biomolecules, are essential nutrients for life. Plastocyanin has 2 electron transfer paths. This model for the overall tumbling of plastocyanin provided a statistically significant improvement over the isotropic model, yielding an F statistic value of 4.7 for Cu(II) plastocyanin and of 5. Micronutrients Element # 1. Chlorine 8. In addition to the beta-sheets, the structure contains an alpha-helix from Pro47 to Lys54 that follows beta-strand 4. Organism. Iron: Iron is mainly absorbed by the plant in the ferrous form, but ferric ion may also be absorbed. In previous work, we showed that the Cyc6 gene contains at least two copper response elements (CuREs) (28). the adaptive processes ( Cyc6 and Cpx1 transcription, plastocyanin degradation, copper transport) are targets of the same signal transduction pathway as is the case for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (see above). View Answer. HMGâ 1 enhances HMGâ I/Y binding to an A/Tâ rich enhancer element from the pea plastocyanin gene Author: Webster, Carl I., Packman, Leonard C., Gray, John C. Source: European journal of biochemistry 2001 v.268 no.11 pp. The influence of the transcriptional enhancer of the pea plastocyanin gene ( PetE ) on the acetylation of histones was examined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments using antibodies that recognize acetylated or nonacetylated histones H3 and H4. Die back disease in citrus is due to deficiency of. Measurements were made by … as a probe and the sequence of a 1.9-kb DNA fragment containing the plastocyanin gene was determined. Silicon. A large proportion of all proteins are part of this category. Treatment with Triton X-100 is most ef-fective. Manganese 3. It is a "blue copper" protein. It is lacking cytochrome b-559, although three of the five polypeptides seem to carry heme groups. The −259/−79 by promoter fragment is capable of conferring glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression on the minimal −90/+3 by 35S RNA promoter of CaMV and −51/+60 by plastocyanin promoter, regardless of its orientation. Gene. Some cyanobacterial thylakoids also contain a caa3-type cytochrome c6 oxidase that requires three atoms of copper (1). With these cultures the amount of PC which is sufficient for maximum photosynthesis in intact cells was determined to be about 1 to 1.5 PC/P700. The spinach plastocyanin promoter contains most, if not all, cis elements crucial for its activity downstream of -259 bp relative to the transcription start site. (i,i ϩ 2) (i,i ϩ 3) (i,i ϩ 4) and (i,i ϩ 5). Plastocyanin contains. View Answer. J. Biochem. S/MARs contain sequences that strongly resemble the 21 bp DNA element found in S/MARs of the plastocyanin region. Background: Electron transfer between cytochrome f and photosystem I (PSI) can be accomplished by the heme-containing protein cytochrome c6 or by the copper-containing protein plastocyanin. Gene. The copper content and molecular weight contrast with that of plastocyanin preparations from spinach (mol. Plastocyanin was found in a head-on orientation, as determined using pseudocontact shifts, similar to that in the Phormidium complex, in which the hydrophobic patch represents the main site of interaction on plastocyanin. Reclamation and little leaf disease is caused by deficiency of. This plastocyanin is the smallest copper-protein yet reported; its molecular weight is 10,690. Cloning and characterization of the plastocyanin region. The plastocyanin contains some uncharacterized carbohydrate. In a situation of poor nutrition, organisms economize on the use of these elements by choosing alternate chemistries to achieve the same function. Plant J. Plastocyanin and cytochrome C552 are interchangeable electron carriers in the photosynthetic electron transfer chains of some cyanobacteria and green algae (P. M. Wood, Eur. The elements arsenic, copper and mercury have which of the following effect? Plastocyanin is imported into thylakoids as an unfolded protein (3), necessitating a separate copper supply to form the holoenzyme. Plastocyanin, which requires copper (Cu) as a cofactor, is an electron carrier in the thylakoid lumen and essential for photoautotrophic growth of plants. Vorst O, Kock P, Lever A, Weterings B, Weisbeek P, Smeekens S. The promoter of the Arabidopsis thaliana plastocyanin gene contains a far upstream enhancer-like element involved in chloroplast-dependent expression. Our analysis of the 16 kb Arabidopsis plastocyanin region gives insight into the organisation of a region that contains a cluster of genes. Based on the alignment of seven Arabidopsis S/MAR we propose Figure 1. The term microenvironment is used instead of fold or domain as these units often contain discontinuous elements of sequence and structure, ... use ferredoxin, cytochrome c, and plastocyanin modules. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. The spinach plastocyanin promoter contains most, if not all, cis elements crucial for its activity downstream of −259 by relative to the transcription start site. View Answer. Pre-plastocyanin (Pre-PC), the precursor of plastocyanin, and Int-plastocyanin (Int-PC), the precursor of plastocyanin without its transit sequence, served as controls for import and localization. The Cu microRNAs, which are expressed during Cu deprivation, down-regulate several transcripts that encode for Cu proteins. plastocyanin from spinach chloroplasts by various methods. bDegrees not included in total. It takes part in electron transfer in photosystem I, in which the reversible conversion from Cu + to Cu 2+ + e-takes place. wt., 21,000) and Chenopodium album (mol. Boron 4. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. The amino acid composition of plastocyanin was determined. The -259/-79 bp promoter fragment is capable of conferring glucuronidase (GUS) gene expression on the minimal -90/+3 bp 35S RNA promoter of CaMV and -51/+60 bp plastocyanin promoter, regardless of its orientation. The symerythrin and plastocyanin modules are largely associated with later Archean metabolisms, which include oxidation or aerobic pathways (Fig. Plastocyanin The copper protein plastocyanin is formed using phenol oxidases, which contain copper. Immunoblots and mass spectrometric analysis of proteolytic peptides indicate that the two negative patches conserved in plant plastocyanins are cross-linked with lysine residues of a domain near the N-terminus of the PsaF subunit of photosystem I. c According to the Ramachandran plot. The endogenous plastocyanin (PC) concentrations of Dunaliella cultures were varied from 0.3 to 3.1 molecules per pigment 700 (P700) by decreasing the Cu+ supply of the nutrient. An important question that can now be tackled is whether this organisation is related to the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the genes. Plastocyanin (Pc) is a copper-containing protein, which functions as an electron carrier between the cytochrome b(6)f and photosystem 1 (PS1) complexes in the photosynthetic electron transfer (ET) chain. The coordination sphere of the copper atom is comprised of two strongly bound histidine ligands and one cysteinate ligand. 5). Repeated extraction does not increase this value, which cor-responds to one plastocyanin for 220 to 550 chloro-phylls. Organism. Sodium 9. View Answer. The ET is mediated by His87 situated in the hydrophobic surface in the north region of Pc. TATA and CCAAT boxes are located 34-bp and 68-bp, respectively, upstream of the transcription start de, the 5’-untranslated leader is 78 nucleotides long, and the intronless gene has at least two different polyadenylation sites. Cobalt 10. Plastocyanin is a key metalloprotein in the electron transfer processes from photosystem II to photosystem I. Plastocyanin consists of a polypeptide of approximate 100 amino acid residues and a type 1 copper atom (also called the “blue copper site”) coordinated by the side chains of four residues, two histidines, a cysteine, and a methionine. It is estimated that approximately half of all proteins contain a metal. Plastocyanin, chloroplastic. However, the interaction in the cross-complex is dependent on electrostatics, similar to that in the Nostoc complex. Biological energy conversion relies on a well-defined sequence of redox reactions within the membrane-embedded electron transport chains of chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plastocyanin contains 0.58 per cent of copper, which gives a minimal molecular weight of 10,800. The elements are: 1. The blue color of the oxidized protein is found to be due to the copper in a cupric combination with the protein moiety. Iron 2. The molar extinction coefficient (ε 597) of the copper chromophore was shown to be 4.5 x 10 3. 7A). Paa1Ltp-PC contains 15 additional residues at its N terminus relative to Paa1Stp-PC. PETE. Participates in electron transfer between P700 and the cytochrome b6-f complex in photosystem I. Reported ; its molecular weight is 10,690 abundant copper protein in these organisms in electron transfer in I... 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